Black American History from 1900 to 1940 in The United States of America
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Updated Tuesday, July 12, 2005  

At the beginning of the 20th Century two black American leaders were on a collision course as they strive to create equality in a land governed by hypocrisy, bigotry, and self-interests. Booker T. Washington promoted education, and was tolerant of segregation. W. E. B. Du Bois was more stringent and demanded full equality without compromise.

Booker T. Washington BookerTWashington.bmp (13750 bytes) The Founder of Tuskegee Institute placed education as the most effective tool in black economic development. His political positions allowed for the separation of the races in difference to opportunities for economic progress. He was certainly among the first black leaders that proposed and promoted black business, or blacks doing business with blacks. Today, black Americans continue to do business with those that do no business with them.

The First Decade of the 20th Century

 The United States, at the turn of the century, was greatly divided along racial and ethnic lines. What is not truly appreciated is that the development of this nation took hands of many colors to build. 

1901
The last African-American congressman for 28 years leaves Congress. George H. White gave up his seat on March 4. No African-American would serve in Congress for the next 28 years.
 
President McKinley assassinated. President McKinley died of an assassin's bullet on September 14, a week after being shot in Buffalo, New York. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt succeeded him as president.
 
Washington dines at the White House. On October 16, after an afternoon meeting at the White House with Booker T. Washington, President Theodore Roosevelt informally invited Washington to remain and eat dinner with him, making Washington the first black American to dine at the White House with the president. A furor arose over the social implications of Roosevelt's casual act.
 
Lynching. One hundred and five black (105) Americans are known to have been lynched in 1901.
 
1902
 
Lynching. Eighty-five (85) black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1902.
 
1903
The Souls of Black Folk. W. E. B. Du Bois's celebrated book, The Souls of Black Folk, was published on April 27. In it, Du Bois rejected the gradualism of Booker T. Washington, calling for agitation on behalf of African-American rights.
 
Lynching. Eighty-four black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1903.
 
1904
Lynching. Seventy-six black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1904.
 
1905
The Niagara Movement. On July 11-13, African-American intellectuals and activists, led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter, began the Niagara Movement.
 
Lynching. Fifty-seven black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1905.
 
1906
 
Soldiers riot. In Brownsville, Texas on August 13, black troops rioted against segregation. On November 6, President Theodore Roosevelt discharged three companies of black soldiers involved in the riot.
A race riot. On September 22-24, in a race riot in Atlanta, ten blacks and two whites were killed.
Lynching. Sixty-two black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1906.
1908
Thurgood Marshall born. Born in Baltimore on July 2, Thurgood Marshall, was the attorney for the NAACP in the famous case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954), in which the Supreme Court found segregated schools to be inherently unequal. He later became the first African-American appointed to the Supreme Court.
 
A race riot. Many were killed and wounded in a race riot on August 14-19, in Abraham Lincoln's home town of Springfield, Illinois.
Taft elected president. On November 3, William Howard Taft (Republican) was elected president.
 
Lynching. Eighty-nine black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1908.
1909
The NAACP is formed. On February 12 -- the centennial of the birth of Lincoln -- a national appeal led to the establishment of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, an organization formed to promote use of the courts to restore the legal rights of black Americans.
 
The North Pole is reached. On April 6, Admiral Peary and African-American Matthew Henson, accompanied by four Eskimos, became the first men known to have reached the North Pole.
Lynching. Sixty-nine black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1909.
1910
Census of 1910.
	U.S. population:  93,402,151
	Black population:  9,827,763 (10.7%)
Crisis debuts. The first issue of Crisis, a publication sponsored by the NAACP and edited by W. E.B. Du Bois, appeared on November 1.
 
Segregated neighborhoods. On December 19, the City Council of Baltimore approved the first city ordinance designating the boundaries of black and white neighborhoods. This ordinance was followed by similar ones in Dallas, Texas, Greensboro, North Carolina, Louisville, Kentucky, Norfolk, Virginia, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Richmond, Virginia, Roanoke, Virginia, and St. Louis, Missouri. The Supreme Court declared the Louisville ordinance to be unconstitutional in 1917.
 
Lynching. Sixty-seven black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1910.

It was open season on black men in the early years of the 20th Century and from all indications that remains the same as we enter the 21st Century. Still black men and women are being shot down by police officers that the court system fails to convict for the murders they commit. For those hard to convince please visit VICTIMS and tell me things have changed. 


WARNING FOLKS THESE LINKS ARE ATTACHED TO THE UGLINESS OF RACISM. DON'T LOOK AT THEM IF YOU DON'T WANT TO LOOK DEATH AND RACISM IN THE FACE.

The Klan Rules then and now.

They will kill you !  Even Two At A Time


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With segregated neighborhoods becoming the "law of the land" the divisions between races were assured. But the law also showed the hatred held in the hearts of the privileged over those they felt beneath them. A sad commentary but the evidence is as prominent as the nose on your face. There were, and are, benefits associated with segregation. During the years of segregation black businesses, and professionals prospered because segregation also segregated the black American consumer.

Booker T. Washington BTW01.jpg (55912 bytes) dined at the White House at the invitation of President Roosevelt and had more faith in the hearts of white Americans. However his critics did not share his belief and called for equal rights without delay or condition.

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The following decade was saturated with more innocent blood.

  1911

The National Urban League begins. In October, the National Urban League was organized to help African-Americans secure equal employment. Professor Kelly Miller was a founding member.
 
Lynching. Sixty black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1911.
 
1912
Wilson elected president. Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) was elected president on November 5.
 
Lynching. Sixty-one black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1912.
 
1913
Jubilee year. The fiftieth anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation was celebrated throughout the year.
 
Harriet Tubman dies. Harriet Tubman -- former slave, abolitionist, and freedom fighter -- died on March 10.
 
Federal segregation. On April 11, the Wilson administration began government-wide segregation of work places, rest rooms and lunch rooms.
 
Lynching. Fifty-one black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1913.
 
1914
 
Lynching. Fifty-one black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1914.
 
World War I. World War I began in Europe.
 
1915
 
Booker T. Washington dies. Renowned African-American spokesman Booker T. Washington died on November 14.
 
Lynching. Fifty-six black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1915.
 
1916
 
Lynching. Fifty black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1916.
 
1917
 
World War I. America entered World War I on April 6. 370,000 African-Americans were in military service -- more than half in the French war zone.
 
A race riot. One of the bloodiest race riots in the nation's history took place in East St. Louis, Illinois, on July 1-3. A Congressional committee reported that 40 to 200 people were killed, hundreds more injured, and 6,000 driven from their homes.
 
NAACP protest. Thousands of African-Americans marched down Manhattan's Fifth Avenue on July 28, protesting lynching, race riots, and the denial of rights.
 
A race riot. On August 23, a riot erupted in Houston between black soldiers and white citizens; 2 blacks and 11 whites were killed. 18 black soldiers were hanged for participation in the riot.
 
The Supreme Court acts. On November 5, the Supreme Court struck down the Louisville, Kentucky ordinance mandating segregated neighborhoods.
 
Lynching. Thirty-six black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1917.
 
1918
A race riot. On July 25-28, a race riot occurred in Chester, Pennsylvania. 3 blacks and 2 whites were killed.
 
A race riot. On July 26-29, a race riot occurred in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 3 blacks and 1 white were killed.
 
World War I ends. The Armistice took effect on November 11, ending World War I. The northern migration of African-Americans began in earnest during the war. By 1930 there were 1,035,000 more black Americans in the North, and 1,143,000 fewer black Americans in the South than in 1910.
 
Lynching. Sixty black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1918.
 
1919
"Red Summer." This was the year of the "Red Summer," with 26 race riots between the months of April and October. These included disturbances in the following areas:
	May 10         		Charleston, South Carolina.
	July 13        		Gregg and Longview counties, Texas.
	July 19-23		Washington, D. C.
	July 27			Chicago.
	October 1-3    		Elaine and Phillips counties, Alabama.
Lynching. Seventy-six black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1919.
 
1920

Census of 1920.

	U.S. population:  105,710,620
	Black population:  10,463,131 (9.9%)
The Harlem Renaissance. The decade of the Twenties witnessed the Harlem Renaissance, a remarkable period of creativity for black writers, poets, and artists, including these authors:
	Claude McKay,	Harlem Shadows, 1922
	Jean Toomer,	Cane, 1923
	Alaine Locke,	The New Negro, 1925
	Countee Cullen,	Color, 1925
The rise of Marcus Garvey. On August 1, Marcus Garvey's Universal Improvement Association held its national convention in Harlem, the traditionally black neighborhood in New York City. Garvey's African nationalist movement was the first black American mass movement, and at its height it claimed hundreds of thousands of supporters.
 
Harding elected president. On November 3, Warren G. Harding (Republican) was elected president.
 
Lynching. Fifty-three black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1920.

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Charles White an African American artist , born in 1918, executed many artistic works that symbolize the strength of sinew and character of people of color, including this powerful image of orator, abolitionist, and 

statesman Frederick Douglass.Douglas01.jpg (19176 bytes)

W. E. B. Du Bois dubious.gif (10031 bytes) became the first black to be awarded a doctoral degree from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Du Bois came to prominence as an advocate of racial equality. He argued against famed black educator Booker T. Washington’s theory that blacks should accept their inferior social status and work to improve their lives through economic means.

Many college-educated blacks disagreed with Washington's philosophy and pursued equality through political and social protest. Ida B. Wells, Mary Church Terrell, William Monroe Trotter, and W.E.B. Du Bois were among those who established such all-black groups as the African American Council, the Niagara Movement, and in 1910, the interracial National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). They demanded their civil rights and worked against the Jim Crow system of segregation through the courts and, where possible, through politics.

Matthew Henson was one of the six members of Robert Peary’s famous expedition to the North Pole in 1909. Henson was the first to reach what was thought to be the North Pole as he was often in front of the party breaking trail, and Peary was back at the base camp ill. Even so Peary got the fame for the accomplishment that was not his.

Madam C. J. Walker cjwalker.jpg (108801 bytes) becomes one of the first black millionaires.

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Oscar Micheaux oscar1.jpg (46608 bytes) was born in 1884 in Metropolis, Illinois. The grandson of a slave, he was the fifth of 13 children. Before becoming a film producer, he worked various trades, including a coal miner, stockyards man and a Pullman porter before becoming a homesteader in Gregory, South Dakota. After living in Chicago in the early 1900's, Micheaux believed the only independent future for the Black man lay on the Western Frontier. Inspired by the teachings of Booker T. Washington and the pioneer philosophy of Horace Greeley, Micheaux believed that there was no future without the access to and ownership of land. He was a determined entrepreneur who literally "went West" with only a few possessions to make his fortune. He was the only Black person to obtain a claim in Gregory County on the Rosebud Indian Reservation where he acquired more than 500 acres of land. Working his land alone, he built a modest 14 by 16 foot claim house and small barn on a hillside. This ambitious man was known to the residents of Gregory as a hard worker and a powerful salesman.

LMPCo01.jpg (16369 bytes)

In 1908, at the age of 24, he began writing novels. His first book was The Conquest, which was based upon his life experiences in the area as a homesteader and also made reference to real people he knew. His writings also share a wealth of local history, including the establishment of the South Dakota towns of Gregory, Winner and Dallas and the arrival of the railroad. Micheaux changed the names of the South Dakota Communities, but local residents were able to follow the references. He sold his first novels door-to-door himself since he was unable to get any bookstores to carry them and eventually sold about 2,500 books.

When Noble Johnson, seen here in Moby Dick, NobleJohnson.jpg (49835 bytes) and his brother George formed The Lincoln Motion Picture Company, on May 24, 1916, it was the first movie company organized by Black filmmakers. The Johnson's approached Micheaux and, wanting to purchase the film rights for his popular novel, The Homesteader, they set up a meeting. En-route to his engagement with the Johnsons, Micheaux toured the South. Despising the films which portrayed Black people in a negative and stereotypical light, he decided that his books would make better movies. When the Johnson Brothers refused his offer to direct his adaptation, he decided to produce the film himself. The resourceful Micheaux wanted creative control over his works. Although he didn't have any experience, he was anxious to direct. His first film, The Homesteader, was released in 1919 and was financed by fellow farmers, Black and White, in the North Dakota area where he lived. As a good salesman, Micheaux knew he had to go on the road to promote his picture. From then on, he traveled all over the country, going from town to town, theater to theater, screening and pre-selling his films to black movie houses that numbered in the hundreds across the country. Between 1919 and 1940 Micheaux produced about 35 feature films

Stepin Fetchit Fetchit.jpg (53105 bytes) (1899-1985) paved the way for today's black actors as did many others from the early years of black film production.

Paul Robeson robeson.jpg (53178 bytes) (1898-1976), like many black Americans, found greater freedom in England and Europe where talent was not measured by color.

 

Paul Lawrence Dunbar   and  

Scott Joplin both demonstrated that blacks possessed talents for the arts as well as the plow.

Born in 1891 in Chicago to a Danish mother and a West Indian father, Nella Larsen larsen1.jpg (41836 bytes) keenly sensed the difficulty of being a child of two worlds, especially after the death of her father and her mother's marriage to a Dane. Educated at Fisk University in Nashville, the University of Copenhagen, the Lincoln Hospital Training Program in New York, and the New York Public Library Training School, Larsen worked as a nurse and as a children's librarian but also wrote articles and novels including Quicksand (1928) and Passing (1929). She received the Harmon Foundation Bronze Award in 1929.

More on EDUCATION

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The Midnight D.J. presents black history, United States history, and glimpses into the history of black Americans. The Midnight D.J believes that a better understanding of African-American history can open up a better understanding of the racism that plagues life in the United States of America. Professionally the Midnight D.J. works with Internet models, photo models, actors, and marketing professionals in the development and promotion of promotional websites. The commentary presented on this website are the opinions and the result of research conducted by The Midnight D.J.  Here is presented the black view, and black perspective of ,current events, historical events, and historical people.  American blacks, by and large, do not have a healthy enough attitude about themselves to demand equality and nothing less. Our contemporary history reflects the absence of economic and political strength required for equality in a democracy. Slavery was abolished well over a hundred years ago, however many blacks remain in chains. They accept the unacceptable; do business with those that do no business with them; still step back when white folks are coming through, and send representatives to various seats of government that do not work toward the good of the black community. And The Midnight D.J. brings Free Eye-candy, Free Pictures of Internet Models, Free Photos of photo models. Free links to all types of websites. The Eye candy is provided by some of the hottest Internet Models in cyberspace. Some are erotic pics, but the purpose of this website is not to provide erotic pictures, but to provide some insight into black history as it relates to United States history. In fact, both are the same and intertwined. There is also vintage photography, pictures of historical figures. The old pictures tell an old story that must come to an end. Although there are photos of ,black erotic models, The Midnight D.J. would rather you read the commentaries, and then visit the various Internet models official websites to view the free eye-candy they provide.